Quantitative Research

The Branding Team conducted an online survey with 50 respondents to determine the CBBE of YKKT. We segmented the 50 respondents into Students (15), PMEBs (20) and Families(15) to further understand how each segment reacts to the CBBE model.

Brand Awareness
We assessed the brand awareness of YKKT by determining brand recall (top-of-mind) and measuring brand recognition.

Brand Recall
YKKT has a high level of unaided brand recall with respect to their competitors. This is evident as a large majority (76%) of the respondents mentioned YKKT when they were asked for the first kaya toast brand that came to mind, as opposed to Toastbox, which came in a distant second at 14%.

When we further analysed our findings in terms of the segments, we observed that only 80% of the respondents from the Students segment mentioned YKKT, while Toastbox acquired the other 20% of the respondents. For the PMEBs segment, 70% mentioned YKKT, 20% mentioned Toastbox and 10% mentioned Killiney Kopitiam. Lastly, 100% of the respondents from the Families segment mentioned YKKT as the first brand of kaya toast that comes to their mind. This shows that the brand recall of YKKT is strongest with the Families segment

Brand Recognition

A brand element test was conducted by showing them a blurred YKKT logo to test the ability of the respondents to identify the brand. Surprisingly, a majority of 68% correctly identify YKKT as the brand.

However, respondents from the Students segment are unable to relate that well to the blurred logo, with only 43% of them getting it right. The PMEBs and Families segments did fairly well similarly as 77% and 82% of the respondents got it right respectively.

With YKKT enjoying both high brand recall and brand recognition, we can conclude that the brand awareness for YKKT is high. With a rich brand story and extensive distribution via franchising, YKKT is like the Apple iPhone in the mobile phone industry, almost everyone is aware of the brand.

2.2 Brand Image
Next, to find out the brand image of YKKT, we assessed the brand association strength, association favourability and association uniqueness.

Association Strength
When asked what word comes to their mind when they think of YKKT, a majority of 13 respondents associate the brand with words like ‘kaya’ and ‘kaya toast’, followed by 9 respondents associating YKKT with the word ‘traditional’. This is evidently strong with the Students segment. It is inferred that they only understand YKKT at a surface level.

For the PMEBs, the common words are ‘convenient’ and ‘traditional’. One can infer that both associations are actually the POPs (point-of-parity) of YKKT.  Convenience is an easily imitable attribute which is why it is a weak association whereas traditional is a stronger association.

A majority of the respondents from the Families Segment associated YKKT with words such as ‘breakfast’ and ‘nostalgia’. The first word association reveals the narrow breadth of brand awareness  (limited usuage situations)as many people will only consider YKKT when they are deciding to have for their breakfast (and maybe lunch).  The second word association reveals that YKKT is strongly associated with its rich, brand heritage (associated in both PMEBs and Families).

Overall, one can observed that as we move up the segment chain (from the Students to Families), the association strength increases, from the basic understanding of the YKKT based on its main product offerings to a higher level of brand meaning, such as childhood memories (nostalgia).

Association Favorability
To uncover association favorability in terms of desirability, we first asked our respondents on the frequency of visits to YKKT stores in a month. Next, we find out why some customers like or dislike YKKT (depending on their frequency of visits) by asking them to explain the reason behind the low or high frequency of visits.


From the diagram above, it is evident that although the association strength of YKKT is high, the association favorability of the brand is relatively low due to the low frequency visits to YKKT stores in a month (0-3 times/mth). We asked opened-ended questions to tap into the favorability of brand association and most of the respondents mentioned that convenience is the key factor. 87% of the respondents belonging to the Students segment mentioned that they seldom frequent YKKT (1-3 times/mth). This simply shows that the Students segment has poor association favourability with YKKT.


For PMEBs, we see a worst-off scenario as compared to the Students segment. The percentage of respondents who go to YKKT is 75% (as compared to 87% previously). However, 20% of these respondents frequents YKKT (4-6 times/mth), which is not seen in the Students segment.


For the Families segment, 64% of the respondents frequent YKKT 1-3 times/mth, 12% frequent 4-6 times/mth, 17% don’t frequent YKKT and only 1 respondent goes to YKKT more than 10 times/mth. Overall, the frequency of YKKT is relatively low across all segments which imply that the association favourability is relatively low.

In addition, to probe for deliverability, we asked the respondents across the segments to rate YKKT in terms of their quality of food, price, variety of selection, location/accessibility, customer service, store ambience/décor and consistency of food quality across stores.

Based on the average values, one can safely conclude that YKKT is a brand that delivers value that meets the basic expectations of its consumers. However, with its brand promise in mind, YKKT needs to place importance on factors such as quality of food, pricing and also the location/accessibility (ranked order, according to survey results) to increase favorability.

Association Uniqueness
From the findings, we have uncovered that throughout all segments, the unique selling proposition of YKKT would be its quality kaya toast. Out of the respondents who frequent YKKT, they mentioned that they go to YKKT for its unique kaya toast that none of its competitors could be comparable to. This becomes a strong POD (point-of-difference) for YKKT to differentiate itself from its competitors.

2.3 Brand Responses
To assess the brand responses of YKKT, we consider how the respondents feel about YKKT in terms of judgment and feelings.

Brand Judgment
Under Brand Judgment, we explored the dimensions of brand quality and brand credibility. For brand quality, we asked the respondents to rank the kaya toast brands in order of preference and the choices given were: YKKT, Killiney Kopitiam and Toastbox.

From the table below, the number 1 preferred brand is YKKT, followed by Toastbox and finally Killiney Kopitiam.

We did a cross tabulation to find out if this was true for all segments and the conclusion was although both segments, Students and Families preferred YKKT over Toastbox and Killiney Kopitiam, PMEBs actually preferred Toastbox over YKKT and Killiney Kopitiam.

With brand credibility, the respondents from all segments gave it an average score of 3.17 (over 5) in terms of its consistency of product quality, especially since there were some negative associations with product quality inconsistency in our initial research.

Brand Feelings
When asked how they feel about the brand, the Students segment responded that they are neutral and associated it with an old personality. Excitement, a key emotion/feeling that the Students are seeking, is found to be missing in YKKT. The PMEBs segment also responded neutral and the key insight gathered was that they are relatively indifferent to YKKT’s branding efforts. They usually go to YKKT because it is near their workplace (convenience). Lastly, the Families segment responded that the brand personality of YKKT is sincerity and YKKT evokes a warm and nostalgic feeling when they interact with the brand.

2.4 Brand Resonance
Lastly, we measured brand resonance in terms of behavioral loyalty, attitudinal attachment, sense of community, active engagement. We also incorporated Fournier’s Brand Relationship Research to find out which roles YKKT plays in the lives of is consumers.

Behavioral loyalty
Across the three segments, it seems that there is little repeat purchase as an insignificant number (4 out of 50) of the respondents visit YKKT 4-6 times in a month, and only 1 respondent visit YKKT more than 10 times in a month.  From our secondary research, we found out some of the reasons why YKKT has low behavioral loyalty. It is largely due to the wide availability of substitutes, on top of its limited usage situations (breakfast, lunch). Some of the recorded responses to which why consumers don’t frequent YKKT is because “nobody is going to have kaya toast for breakfast or meals every day”.

In addition, most of the respondents mentioned that convenience is important to them, especially applicable to the PMEBs segment. This means that if the kaya toast from YKKT had not been available, they would definitely not wait and also not go to other store. We can safely assumed that they will go to another brand, such as Toastbox (as supported by the qualitative research). Nevertheless, YKKT should improve its behavioral loyalty by capturing repeat purchases.

Attitudinal Attachment
Another observation found across all segments is that majority of the respondents lacked attitudinal attachment. To them, having kaya toast is a low-involvement decision and is definitely not a culture in-built in them, which is extremely prevalent in the Students segment as they only associate YKKT with words such as kaya toast, eggs, etc. YKKT needs to find its Universal Truth and have the Universal Truth as its value proposition to bind emotion ties with its consumers. Otherwise, it will just be another kaya toast brand that can be easily substitutable.

Brand Relationships – Fournier’s Brand Relationship Research

Based on the findings, there are several brand relationships formed between the respondents and YKKT. Each segment has its unique brand relationships:

  • Students: Kinships/ Casual Friend/Buddy
  • PMEBs: Casual Friend/Buddy
  • Families: Childhood Friendships

The Students segment mainly formed casual friend/buddy with YKKT and a minority of them formed kinship with YKKT when their preference of YKKT was inherited from their parents. The casual relationship implies that the Students only go to YKKT for its product offerings and there is no emotional attachment, if YKKT is not available, they will simply switch to another brand.

Casual friend/buddy is also applicable to the PMEBs segment, even more than Students. This is because the key influencing factor of PMEBs is convenience. They usually buy YKKT on their way to work or during lunch/tea-time and they frequent any kaya toast brand that is near their workplace.

On the higher end of the affection spectrum, the Families segment formed childhood friendship with YKKT. Some respondents mentioned that their first encounter with YKKT was with their families and each subsequent encounter with YKKT, it evokes a nostalgic feel. This relationship also applies to the consumers from the Baby Boomer generation who grew up with the YKKT brand.

2.5 Conclusion
Although YKKT fares relatively well in brand awareness and brand image, the brand gets weaker as it moves up the CBBE pyramid, which explains why it is unable to capture brand loyalty (shown by the low frequency of visits). In addition, the brand relationships formed between the consumers and YKKT are of low involvement, in terms of infrequent engagements and also low in affection.

In order to increase the Customer-based Brand Equity, YKKT should first understand its 3 target segments, namely Students, PMEBs and Families because although there are similarities amongst these segments, all three also displayed different levels of understanding of brand awareness, image, responses and resonance. YKKT must identify the tactical gaps by identifying and improving the attributes that the target segment matters the most, such as product quality, price and location/accessibility. YKKT should also aim to form higher engagement and affective relationships such as committed partnership or best friendship with all the three segments.


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